It is good to know about stepper motor before one tries to use it for any purpose. Having such knowledge will help one to understand what actually such motors are and how they work. Such knowledge will enable one to use them effectively to perform the work efficiently.
What exactly stepper motor is?
One may be confused as to what actually a stepper motor is. It is wise to actually know what nature of motor it is so that effective use can be made.
- It is a synchronous, brushless motor that runs on a pulsed current.
- When one pulse passes through the stepper motor 0.9 it makes it turn by a fraction of the full rotation.
- These motors are best suited for application where précised movement is required.
- There is a certain nature of applications where the movement must be as accurate as set. In such instances, such motors are the ideal to be used.
- Depending on the application such motors can be used for other purposes also.
- If one wishes to have motors for digital drives and applications without close-loop feedback then these integrated stepper motor is the ideal.
- These motors are hardy and economical and can be had from reputed manufacturers through online means.
- If it is seen then it can easily be noticed that such motors are ideally used spinning-disk hard drives, printers, robotics, CNC machine tools and more.
- These applications are such that precise movement is a necessity and that is obtained by using these stepper motors.
- Like in case of printers’ 3d printer stepper motor is ideally used to having such precise movement.
How Does Stepper Motor Works?
Knowing about the working nature of a stepper motor will help one to establish the correct connection so that the desired result can be had.
- The motor consists of a centrally located rotor which is surrounded by a stator.
- The model of the motor determines that number of windings that are there in the stator.
- When motion is required, then the windings that are there in the stator is energized.
- The stator becomes electromagnetic with a defined polarity depending on the direction of current flow.
- The north and south poles are developed in the rotor and the winding.
- The motion happens due to the fact that the north pole of the rotor tries to come as close as possible to the south pole of the winding. As such attempt is made motion is achieved.
- When there is requirement of continuous motion, then one set of winding need to be de-energized and the next set energized.
- Such steps need to be continued so that effective motion can be achieved.
Types of Stepper Motors
There are many types of stepper motors and they can be sued for different applications.
- Two-phase permanent magnet type is one nature of such motor.
- The rotor of such type has a permanent magnet and the stator has four windings.
- This creates a step angle of 90 degrees.
- It is an economical option of such motor but can only provide low levels of torque.
- Variable-reluctance motor is another type which can be had and applied.
- This nature of the motor does not have a permanent magnet.
- The number of rotor teeth is different from the stator coils.
- The varying width of the air gap between the rotor and the stator generates the motion.
- This is a high resolution alternative to the Two-phase permanent magnet type.
- Hybrid stepper motor is a combination of both the above types.
- In this nature of motor, the rotor has a permanent magnet and the teeth of the rotor and the coils of the stator are misaligned by half a tooth pitch.
How to Control and Run Stepper Motor
One now knows what such a motor is and what the types that can be easily had are. The best way to have such motors is to get them from reputed manufacturers so that the desired accurate movement can be achieved. It is wise to know how to control and run a stepper motor.
- There are two modes by which such motor can be run. The modes are unipolar and bipolar.
- In unipolar mode, the positive voltage range is applied and in bipolar the current has two directions.
- There are three different ways of running a stepper motor.
- The three styles are full-step drive, half-step drive, and microstepping.
- These methods and steps must be learned properly before one tries to operator such a motor.
- It is generally seen that manufacturers make users aware of such steps so that effective motion can be had.
Know you are aware of the basic regarding stepper motors and can effectively use them for their use.